You, who are on your road
Should have a code
That you can live by
And so become yourself
Because the past is just a goodbye.
Graham Nash in Déjà vu
The Mountain Code
All over the world millions of people practice mountaineering and rock climbing. In many countries mountain sports have become an import factor of everyday life.
The developments in values and general consciousness in modern society have left their marks on mountain sports as well. For example, in the face of growing ecological awareness the debates on rock climbers’ and mountaineers’ right of access to their areas of activity, have led to a reflection process, prompting climbers to take the initiative on ecological issues. Internally, a heated discussion on climbing style is being conducted, mainly on the issue of the legitimacy of such climbing aids as bolts, fixed ropes and oxygen. The necessary and often fruitful cooperation of climbers with commercial sponsors has confronted many leading activists with the question, what form this interaction should take so as not to sacrifice the credibility and integrity of their sport. Last but not least, growing callousness in society is making inroads into mountaineering as well, and is causing deep concern within the climbing community.
We have drawn up this Code of Ethics in response to the widespread desire to explicitly formulate hitherto unwritten climbers’ rules of conduct and to adapt them to the needs of the times. The Code is addressed to all people interested in mountain sports, whether they like to go hiking and trekking in the mountains, whether they are sport climbing enthusiasts or are out to push their limits in high altitude mountaineering. The guidelines are offered as a proposal and were formulated to spark off an international discussion with the goal of reaching a broad consensus on the rules of conduct in all relevant areas of mountain sports.
B Functions of the Code
The Code comprises a system of values, maxims and rules to provide a structured basis for desirable conduct in mountaineering and rock climbing. Although it formulates a set of values to aid decision-making in concrete situations, the Code does not contain detailed instructions.
- The Code defines today’s fundamental values in mountaineering and rock climbing.
- The Code contains principles and rules of conduct for all important aspects of climbing.
- The Code formulates the relevant ethical evaluation criteria for decision conflicts and other uncertain situations.
- The Code presents the ethical principles by which the public can judge mountaineering and rock climbing events.
- The Code introduces beginning climbers to the set of values and moral principles relevant to their sport.
- The Code sets a standard by which other climbers can judge and, if necessary, condemn, activities of other climbers.
In keeping with Article 1 of the UN Bill of Human Rights, the Code is based on the premise that human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and should act towards one another in the spirit of brotherhood.
Life, liberty, happiness
It goes without saying that climbers and mountaineers subscribe to the inalienable human rights stated by Thomas Jefferson – foremost life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. We feel a special responsibility towards the indigenous populations of mountain areas, whose right to a dignified, self-determined life must be protected by all possible means.
Intactness of Nature
Thanks to their intensive contact with nature, climbers and alpinists develop an awareness for the beauty of a healthy environment and the need to preserve its flora and fauna. “Leave no traces” has always been a key issue in our environmental philosophy. With the growing threat to fragile ecosystems in mountain regions all over the world, one of the most important commitments of the climbing community has become the protection of endangered species of flora and fauna, both in the mountains and in crag climbing areas.
There are few situations in which people are so dependent on each other as are climbers on a hard route. Rewarding experiences and success most readily manifest in a harmonious team where mutual support is the rule. The mutual experience of intensive outdoor adventure diminishes differences due to social class, age, race, religion or nationality. Thus, climbing has become a means to promote understanding among individuals as well as nations.
As performance in climbing frequently goes unwitnessed and often can’t be indisputably documented, experts and the public alike have to rely on the truthfulness of the activists who report on their accomplishments. If arbitrariness replaces truth, it becomes impossible to evaluate performance in climbing, thus robbing our sport of one of its most important motives.
It is our conviction that all humans – after their immediate physical demands and their needs for security, love and recognition have been met – strive for self-actualization. For millions people around the world, climbing and mountaineering have become a significant factor in the quest for a meaningful life. It is through climbing that they experience the support of a friendly social environment, recognition and the exhilarating pleasures of athletic accomplishment.
All mountaineers and rock climbers like to tackle problems that challenge them both physically and mentally, striving for both elegant and controlled execution of the task. Many activists strive to improve their abilities. Without continual progress on the cutting edge of performance, climbing would lose much of its dynamism and fascination.
We experience our own performance most intensively when – moving close to our limits – we interact with the natural obstacles posed by mountains or crags as directly as possible, with a minimum of interfering technology. For this reason, risk and adventure are essential factors in climbing. The intensive feeling of satisfaction climbing can impart, is a product of the exciting balance between danger and safety achieved through skillfully blending courage, rational judgement, emotional control, responsibility and athletic prowess.
The Quality of Values
Although individualistic values play an essential role in defining climbing, we need to realize that in any moral issue, these rank below humane principles and environmentally-oriented ideals. Putting self-actualization, performance and adventure above the right to life of Man and his natural environment is incompatible with the humanistic values of mountaineering and rock climbing. It is the responsibility of every single climber to weigh and balance the values of his sport so that climbing can keep its integrity and is able to stand up against current trends marked by egotism and greed.
D The Pluralism of Climbing Games
Modern climbing encompasses a broad spectrum of activities ranging from hiking and bouldering to crag climbing and mountaineering – including extreme forms of high altitude alpinism and expedition climbing in the Andes or Himalayas. Although the dividing lines between the varoius forms of climbing are by no means rigid, the following categorization makes it possible to present the vast diversity of modern mountain sports in a comprehensible manner.
Hiking and Trekking
Hiking to mountain huts, cols and summits in the pre-alpine and alpine zone is the most widespread form of mountaineering. A multiple day hike in the high mountains, especially off the beaten track, today is often referred to as a trek. Hiking turns into a more demanding form of mountaineering as soon as hands have to be used for progress.
Climbing Via Ferratas
Routes on steep rocky terrain equipped with steel cables and iron rungs are becoming more and more popular. An arena hitherto reserved for technical rock climbing is made accessible through an elaborate infrastructure and special protection systems.
A mountaineer in this category will rock climb up to a standard of UIAA grade 3 und ascend up to 40-degree snow and ice. The typical goals in this category of climbing are the regular routes of peaks in the alpine zone.
The adherents of this classic form of alpinism use alpine or telemark skis to hike up mountains or traverse entire ranges. Due to the complexity of the skills required, this discipline ranks among the most demanding – and dangerous – forms of mountaineering.
The Hierarchy of “Climbing Games”
A system for categorizing the different kinds of climbing introduced by Lito Tejada-Flores, has proved helpful in describing the many facets that modern climbing has acquired. Every specialized type of climbing “game” is defined by an informal but a precise set of rules, formulated so as to keep the task at hand difficult – and thereby interesting. The greater the danger in a particular climbing game due to the natural environment, the more lenient the restrictions for the use of technical equipment. The lower the objective dangers the stricter its rules get.
In “bouldering” difficult sections of rock close to the ground are negotiated, normally without a rope. The equipment allowed is reduced to the climbing shoes, a chalk bag – and these days – a crash pad. Bouldering is practiced on natural boulders and rocks as well as on artificial objects.
Climbing on artificial objects
Today most climbers use artificial walls, either at home, in a gym or outdoors for training and leisure. Competitions that have gained popularity during the last two decades, present a highly specialized form of this type of climbing. Today, competitions are conducted in various disciplines: “difficulty”, “speed” and “bouldering” with a set of rules defined by the International Council for Competition Climbing (ICCC) of the UIAA.
Routes between one and three pitches long are called crag climbs. Because of their shortness and the almost total absence of objective dangers, the free ascent “ethic” has gained international acceptance for this type of climbing during the last two decades. This means that a only counts if no fixtures placed in the rock have been used for progress during the ascent.
Style: Adventure Climbing and Sport Climbing
Modern climbing terminology differentiates between the styles of adventure or traditional climbing and sport or “plaisir” climbing. Adventure or “trad” climbing has the following elements:
- Performance is judged by the amount of stress resistance necessary for the ascent of a route.
- The climber is responsible for the placement of protection or has to do without.
- Mistakes made by the leader can have very drastic consequences.
Sport or plaisir climbing is characterized as follows:
- Performance is judged by the technical grade of the route climbed.
- The kinesthetic element is dominant.
- Bolts guarantee perfect protection.
- If modern belaying techniques are employed properly, leader- falls tend not to be severely punished.
The styles of adventure and sport climbing can be applied to all types of roped climbing.
If the ascent of a route involves some degree of seriousness and retreat off the route poses a problem due to its length or overhanging nature, it is classified as “continuous climbing.” For this type of route the same set of rules applies as for crags.
In this climbing game developed in Yosemite Valley, the activists ascend walls that cannot be free climbed with specially designed equipment. They strive to reduce the drilling of holes for the placement of bolts or other means of progress as much as possible, thus leaving a minimum of traces after completing the ascent.
In the “alpine game” activists not only have to deal with the problems posed by actual climbing but also with the “objective” dangers of a frequently hostile environment in high mountains. Because survival often not only depends on the ability to safely master the technical problems of a route but also on the speed of a party, the unwritten rules of the alpine game classically permit the use of pitons and chocks for progress. However, starting in late sixties, the principles of free climbing have been increasingly applied in the high
mountains as well. Whereas at the beginning of the new era, the focus was on the free ascent of routes normally done on aid, it didn’t take long for new difficult climbs – put up according to the stricter rules – to appear in the mountains. These include both extremely bold adventure routes and hedonistic sport climbs.
An important aspect of alpine climbing is the ascent of ice routes in the high mountains. These range from classic ice faces to seriously hard futuristic enterprises. A type of ice climbing that has recently become popular is the ascent of frozen waterfalls, ice-stalactites und glazed rock. Modern mixed rock-and -ice routes sometimes involve make very hard rock moves with the aid of crampons and ice tools. The game is governed by the rules of free climbing. Hardliners even chose do without the hand loops on their tools. The ice and mixed routes can range from short one-pitch affairs to bold operations in the higher ranges that can last for several weeks.
This mountaineering discipline applies the rules of alpine climbing to high-altitude terrain in the six, seven and eight thousand-meter peak range long reserved for traditional expeditions. In the super alpine game fixed ropes, help from outside sources or the installation of a chain of camps are all rejected.
Two forms of this game have developed: The first variation has the function of enabling a maximum number of members to reach prestigious summits in the high mountain ranges via the normal route. They optimize the probability of success through liberal use of porters, fixed ropes and artificial oxygen.
In contrast, the extreme form of expedition climbing strives to push the limits of technical difficulty with the help of modern equipment can provide: fixed ropes, portaledge camps and equipment depots, in some cases even oxygen.
Different games and safety-“philosophies” correspond to diverging individual needs of the activists. The wealth of forms in mountain sports provides pleasure and self-fulfillment for a great number of people – a fact that we welcome.
On the other hand, we oppose the trend towards completely eliminating danger from climbing along the lines of the “pleasure” philosophy, thus reducing the sport to its movement aspect. For without danger and uncertainty, climbing loses its defining element – adventure. To climb a route on a minimum of equipment will always be valued more highly
than the ascent of a route with perfected infrastructure.
E Maxims and Ethical Norms
Article 1 Individual Responsibility
Maxim: A mountaineer or climber performs his sport on his own responsibility. He is accountable for his own safety and that of the other people he encounters on the climb. In making decisions, we must rely solely on conscience and good judgment, disregarding the expectations of others.
- Spare no effort to make every climb as safe as possible. The guideline is “common good practice.”
- Choose your goals according to your own skills, or those of the team and according to the conditions on the mountain.
- Be properly equipped on every trip. Adequate equipment may vary according to the objective conditions and your own personal ability level.
Article 2 Team Spirit
Maxim: Reliability, enthusiasm for a common goal, consideration for other team members and the readiness to promote their interests are keys to success and having a positive experience and in climbing. We should mobilize our awareness, tolerance and willingness to make compromises in order to balance all the interests and abilities in a team.
- Climbers should behave in such a way as to permit their team members to make
optimal use of their skills.
- The speed of a climb is based on the pace of the weakest team member.
- The (informal) team leader supports other members of the group without dominating
- No team member should be left behind alone, if this risks his well-being.
Article 3 The Community of Climbers
Maxim: We owe every person we meet on the rocks or in the mountains an equal measure of kindness and respect. In isolated conditions and in highly stressful situations physically or mentally, it is especially advisable to follow the golden rule: treat others, as we want to be treated ourselves.
- Since nothing can poison the atmosphere more that distrust, respect the property of thers and don’t to take anything not given to you. Return items you find at the crags or in the mountains to their rightful owners without being asked.
- Warn others of potential dangers if you see that they are not aware of or are ignoring them.
- At the crags, avoid blocking entire sections by leaving your ropes hanging if others are waiting to do the climbs.
- If more than one team is on a long climb, they should be particularly careful not to endanger each other. Let parties pass if they are obviously faster than you are.
- As visitors, we should respect the local “ethics” of a climbing area.
- Our reports on climbs should truthfully reflect the actual events, relating every important detail. We should refrain from passing on information, the truth of which we have not checked on. Criticism of other climbers should be made to their faces,not behind their backs.
- Lets help one another by being generous with the information we have access to.
Article 4 Visiting Foreign Countries
Maxim: As guests in foreign cultures, we should always conduct ourselves politely and with restraint towards the people there – our hosts! We will promote international relations if we manage to develop an understanding for their society, religion and way of doing things. The experience of foreign cultures has influenced the lives of many climbers in a meaningful way.
- Always treat the people in your host country with kindness and respect on the basis of equality.
- Strictly adhere to any climbing regulations implemented by your host country.
- It is advisable to read up on the history, society political structure, art and religion of the country visited before embarking on the trip to enhance our understanding of its people and their environment.
- It’s wise to develop some basic skills in the language of our host country: forms of greeting, please and thank you, days of the week, time, numbers, etc. It is always astounding to see how much this little investment improves the quality of communication.
- Never pass up an opportunity to share your climbing skills with interested locals. Joint expeditions with climbers from the host country are the best setting for an exchange of experience.
- In many countries, especially outside of the western hemisphere, people react negatively to – at times heedless – displays of naked skin. We should spare our hosts these embarrassing experiences.
- At all costs avoid offending the religious feelings of your hosts. Bouldering on a mani stone is just as much of a blasphemy as using a summit cross in the Alps as a pullupbar. If some expressions of other religions are beyond your comprehension, be tolerant and avoid expressing criticism.
- Give all possible assistance to local inhabitants in need. An expedition doctor often is in a position to make a decisive difference in the life of an acutely ill inhabitant.
- Many alpinists have started social projects to help the locals they meet on expeditions. We are encouraged to increase these activities. We have received so boundlessly from our hosts in mountain regions, that we can hardly do enough to repay their kindness.
Article 5 Mountain Guide and Client
Maxim: A guide should strive to give his client an all around positive experience in the mountains. The value of a guided climb lies not so much in the success of the venture as in the quality of human relationships and the experience of Nature.
- Mountain guides are highly qualified experts s with extensive professional training. The services they render involve a high degree of responsibility. The client should treat the guide with due respect and should refrain from overbearing behavior.
- The selected route should fit the skill level of the client. Even under unfavorable circumstances like bad weather or adverse conditions on the mountain, the venture should not present undue risks, nor should the client be the so stressed by the climb as to make it an unpleasant experience. A mountain guide who in enticed by the offer of a high fee to attempt a route that is beyond the abilities of his customer, not only endangers the client, but also his own professional future.
- Since the safety of the clients can’t be guaranteed in guided ascents of eightthousand-meter-peaks, the service of guides on peaks above 7500 meters should be limited to setting up an appropriate infrastructure to be used by qualified, selfsufficient climbers.
- Under the pretext of deteriorating weather or unfitness of a client for the route, it is not legitimate for a guide to end a climb before its completion only to take off with second customer far an added salary.
- The client must accept the decisions of the guide and follow instructions without resisting since, in most cases, the client is not in a position to make sound judgment of the risk factors involved.
- In emergencies, the guide must do everything in his power to prevent the client from coming to harm. In the most extreme event, the guide is obliged to risk his life thereby.
Article 6 Emergencies
Maxim: If a person we meet – regardless if it is a fellow climber, a porter or an other local inhabitant – needs help, we must do everything in our power to provide qualified support as quickly as possible. There is no “morality-free zone” in climbing!
- If aid by an official instance – like mountain rescue – is not possible and we are in a position to help, we are obligated to give persons in trouble all possible support if this is possible without unduly endangering ourselves.
- Helping someone in trouble has absolute priority over reaching goals we set for ourselves in the mountains. Saving a life or reducing damage to an injured person’s health is far more valuable than the hardest of first ascents.
- Life-preserving measures should only be stopped if the death of an accident victim or a sick person has been established beyond doubt.
Article 7 Dying and Death
Maxim: Due to the dangerousness of their sport, climbers can be confronted with dying and death. We should contribute to making the passage as harmonious as possible, treat the body of the deceased with utmost respect and do everything in our power to alleviate the grief of the bereaved.
- If the circumstances permit, we should accompany the dying friend in an appropriate fashion, striving to make the external circumstances as agreeable as possible.
- If feasible, we should treat the body of the deceased according to his or her beliefs.
- If it is not possible to salvage the corpse, one should ensure a thorough photographic documentation, the precise location of the body should be established and recorded in a sketched map.
- If necessary, the clothing of the dead person should be examined for identification and to recover any personal belongings.
- Photographs should be taken in the course of the examination, since minor details of clothing of equipment could be of assistance in identifying the body.
- Personal possessions, such as camera, diary, notebook, photographs, letters and other personal artifacts should be safeguarded for the bereaved.
- On returning to civilization, efforts should be made to identify the dead person and to deliver all artifacts to the family of the deceased.
Article 8 Nature and Environment
Maxim: Rock climbers and mountaineers are obliged to practice their activities in an environmentally sound fashion and be proactive in preserving nature in their field of activity. In many cases these are fragile biotopes that give shelter to endangered species of flora and fauna, the survival of which depends on specific protection measures.
- We respect the measures to preserve the wilderness environment and see to it that the regulations are followed by our fellow climbers.
- If possible, we approach our destination using public transportation or car pools in order to minimize traffic on the roads.
- In order to avoid erosion and not to disturb wildlife, we stay on trails during approaches and descents and, in the wilderness, pick out the most eco-compatible route.
- We strive to reduce the disturbance of wildlife to a minimum by avoiding noise.
- During the breeding and nesting periods of cliff dwelling birds, the habitats of the eyries and nests are strictly off limits. As soon as we learn about any breeding activity we should pass on this knowledge to fellow climbers and ensure that they stay away from the nesting area.
- During first ascents we are careful not to endanger the biotopes of rare species of plants and animals. In equipping and redeveloping routes, we should take all precautions to minimize their environmental impact.
- Not only do we carry our own garbage out of the mountains, but we also pick up any rubbish left by others.
- In the absence of sanitary installations, we should keep an adequate distance from homes, camp sites, creeks, rivers or lakes while defecating and take all the necessary measures to avoid damage to the ecosystem and make sure that we don’t offend other people’s esthetic feelings. In highly frequented areas with a low level of biological activity, climbers should take the trouble to pack out their feces.
- In high altitude mountaineering the campsite should be kept clean, waste should be avoided or adequately disposed of. All climbing material – fixed ropes, tents and oxygen bottles – must be removed from the mountain.
- Energy consumption should be reduced to a minimum. Especially in countries with a wood shortage, avoid anything that could contribute to the further decline of forests.
- In conflicts over access issues, landowners, authorities and associations should negotiate to find solutions satisfactory to all parties.
- We take an active part in the implementation of these regulations, especially by publicizing them and contributing to the necessary infrastructure.
- Together with the mountaineering associations and other conservation groups we are proactive on the political level in protecting natural habitats and the environment.
Article 9 Style and Excellence
Maxim: If you do an ascent is less important than how you do it. In every form of climbing, “good style” means to reducing technical aids to a justifiable minimum. Rock climbers and alpinists, who are not capable of making an ascent according to the accepted good practice, should refrain from the attempt.
- The desirable style of doing a free climbing route is the on sight-redpoint-ascent. Checking out a route and practicing the moves reduces the performance and the experience. An ascent done with rests hanging from pieces of protection is not considered valid.
- Climbers should refrain from increasing the fixed pro on existing routes. When carrying out redevelopment measures, we should strive to preserve the original character of a climb.
- If possible, we should refrain from using chains of camps and fixed ropes and instead strive for an alpine-style ascent in one push without external help.
- The use of artificial oxygen in climbing should be limited to medical purposes.
- Refrain from the consumption of all substances illegal in other sports if their administration isn’t medically indicated.
Article 10 First Ascents
Maxim: A first ascent should only be attempted if the climb can be done in an environmentally sound fashion, if it is compatible with local regulations and in no way affects justified claims of other climbers. The first ascent of a route or a mountain is a creative act that, in many cases, reflects the activists’ particular style.
- In alpine regions, first ascents must be done exclusively on lead (no prefixing from above).
- All available “natural” protection with nuts, friends etc. should be used.
- In principle, it is up to a first ascentionist to decide on the standard of protection in her or his route. However, in areas designated as wilderness by the responsible access committee, bolts should be limited to an absolute minimum.
- During the first ascent of aid climbs drilling holes and placing fixed pieces should be limited to the absolute minimum; a drill should only be employed as a last resort.
- The independent character of adjacent routes must not be compromised.
- If a project is being attempted by a team without the use of bolts and it hasn’t been explicitly abandoned, candidates for the route with a lower standard of ethics must uphold a three year moratorium from the first attempt of their predecessor.
- Disputes over first ascents are to be settled in a manner worthy of the best traditions of climbing.
- When reporting about first ascents, it is essential to stick to the truth in every detail. The documented points include: The length and of the climb, the elevation of its highest point, the difficulty, number and location of fixed pieces of protection and aid, use of fixed ropes and artificial oxygen, dates and the duration of the ascent as well as number and location of camps and bivouacs.
- We should verify our accent b beyond any doubt: Taking photos that prove the ascent of a peak, documenting an important rock climb on video and leaving pitonsat strategic points can save ourselves and the climbing community a lot of trouble.
Article 11 Sponsoring and Public Relations
Maxim: The cooperation between sponsors and climbers should be based on total reliability and mutual trust. It should enable the climber to fully develop his potential and should increase the sponsor’s sales by improving his product and image.
- The welcome synergy between climbers and sponsors can only flourish if both sides live up to the spirit and details of their agreements. Complete reliability and a casual, benevolent communication-style are prerequisites to a lasting, fruitful cooperation.
- To hold and improve their level of performance, climbers are dependent on continuous support from their sponsors. For this reason it is important, for the sponsors to keep backing their partners even after a series of failures.
- In order to preserve their own credibility and to ensure the success of their sponsors, climbers should only represent products they really believe in. The sponsored climber should discretely point out any flaws in his sponsor’s products and invest his know-how in improving their quality.
- Climbers should refrain from representing products that are detrimental to other people, nature or the environment.
- Climbers should meticulously fulfill their responsibilities towards their sponsors meticulously, regardless of emotional fluctuations. They should clearly demonstrate their identification with the sponsor and his product.
- Under no circumstances may the sponsor pressure the climber into performing. If it becomes evident that his days as a first class athlete and an advertising medium have reached an end, the contract should be dissolved amicably.
Article 12 Climbing in the Media-Society
Maxim: The image of climbing projected by the media helps popularize the sport and thereby insure its future. In many countries this coverage establishes climbing as an important cultural factor in the eyes of the general public. For this reason, all individuals and associations involved in the sport should do their share to convey a realistic and positive image of rock climbing and mountaineering to the public.
- Associations and activists alike should make every effort to inform on the current situation and climbing activities comprehensively, correctly and in detail a to convey a realistic picture of the sport to the public.
- It is mainly the responsibility of the climbing associations to correct widespread misconceptions about climbing – for instance confusing free climbing with free soloing – and to make clear to the public that climbing is a responsible leisure activity of significant social value.
- The media should refrain from influencing climbing projects in any manner that could detract from their quality or endanger the participants.
- Climbers should take pains to report their activities truthfully. A realistic account that refrains from problematical comparisons with the North Face of the Eiger and is honest about the equipment used, not only enhances the credibility of the climber but also the public reputation of his sport.
F Adoption and Implementation
- The Mountain Code will be discussed and adopted by the world’s leading mountaineers and rock climbers at the Future of Mountain Sports symposium to be conducted by the Austrian Alpine Club in Innsbruck in October 2002.
- The participants of this symposium will commit themselves to publicizing and winning support for the Code in their home countries.
- The Code will be adopted by the General Assembly of the UIAA. The member associations assure the application of the positions formulated by the Code in all relevant sectors of their organizations. These include education and training, public relations, redevelopment of routes and promotion of expeditions.
- It will be the task of the Mountaineering Commission of the UIAA to keep an eye out for particularly positive and negative feats in all areas of climbing and praise or sanction them accordingly .
- In every year the General Assembly presents a prize to the most outstanding positive accomplishment and sanctions the misdeed of the year.
- A follow-up symposium will be held in 2006, to monitor the effectiveness of the Mountain Code and to further develop it if necessary.